A 4th phase of water – H3O2 – Crystalline water – Water as a battery?
The Fourth Phase of Water: Dr. Gerald Pollack at TEDxGuelphU: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-T7tCMUDXU. Book: The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid and Vapor by Gerald Pollack.
Students learn that water has three phases: solid, liquid, and vapor. But there is something more: in our laboratory at the University of Washington we have uncovered a fourth phase. This phase occurs next to water-loving (hydrophilic) surfaces. It is surprisingly extensive, projecting out from surfaces by up to millions of molecular layers. And it exists almost everywhere throughout nature, including in your body. In fact, it is this phase of water that fills your cells.
I describe this newly identified phase of water in my book, The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid and Vapor,1 published in 2013. The book documents the basic findings and presents many applications beyond the ones mentioned above. It also deals with water’s well-recognized anomalies, turning those anomalies into easily explained features.
Fresh experimental evidence not only confirms the existence of such an ordered, liquid-crystalline phase, but also details its properties. It is more viscous, dense and alkaline than H2O and has relatively more oxygen since its formula is H3O2. As a result, it has a negative charge, and like a battery, can hold energy as well as deliver that energy when needed. These properties explain everyday observations and answer questions ranging from why gelatin desserts hold their water to why tea kettles whistle.
Of particular significance is the fourth phase’s charge, which is commonly negative. Absorbed radiant energy splits water molecules; the negative moiety constitutes the building block of the EZ, while the positive moiety binds with water molecules to form free hydronium ions (H3O+), which diffuse throughout the water. Adding additional light (radiant energy) stimulates more charge separation.
This process resembles the first step of photosynthesis. In that step, energy from the sun splits water molecules. Hydrophilic chromophores (the color-containing part of a molecule) catalyze that splitting. The process considered here is similar but more generic: any hydrophilic surface may catalyze the splitting of water. Some surfaces work more effectively than others.
The separated charges resemble a battery. That battery can deliver energy in a manner similar to the way the separated charges in plants deliver energy. Plants, of course, comprise mostly water, and it is therefore no surprise that similar energy conversion takes place in water itself.
The stored electrical energy in water can drive various kinds of work, including flow. An example is the axial flow through tubes. We found that immersing tubes made of hydrophilic materials into water produces flow through those tubes similar to blood flow through blood vessels. The driving energy comes from the radiant energy absorbed and stored in the water. Nothing more. Flow may persist undiminished for many hours, even days. Additional incident light brings faster flow. This is not a perpetual motion machine: incident radiant energy drives the flow—in much the same way that it drives vascular flow in plants and powers water from the roots to nourish trees taller than the length of a football field.
A second example of the EZ’s central role is the weather.
Beyond scientific applications, the discovery of water’s fourth phase has practical applications as well. These include flow production (already mentioned), electrical energy harvesting and even filtration.
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE
Practical applications also exist within our bodies, and here I present two of them: why our joints don’t squeak and why dislocated or sprained joints swell within seconds.
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